Breathlessness, Thirst and Anxiety in the end Stages of Heart Failure

Clare Young

  • Abstract

    Heart failure is associated with a high symptom burden, which can have a negative effect on the life of the person with heart failure as well as their relatives/loved ones. One of the main symptoms of heart failure is breathlessness, which reduces the ability of the person to maintain independence and is associated with anxiety, fear and distress. When a patient in heart failure is approaching the end stages of the disease process, the potential benefits of treatment strategies need to be carefully balanced against the potential side-effects. This article discusses the case of John, who was admitted to hospital in heart failure, the signs and symptoms of which included breathlessness, reduced exercise tolerance and peripheral oedema in his legs, abdomen and groin. It concentrates on John’s primary symptoms of breathlessness, thirst and anxiety. Thirst resulted from the side-effects of diuretic therapy that had been administered in the management of John’s breathlessness. For the purpose of this article the patient’s name has been changed in order to protect patient confidentiality, privacy and dignity ( Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC), 2008 ). Conflicts of interest: none

  • Contributors

    Clare Young


    Correct at article publish date

    Hospital at Night, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (formerly Deputy Ward Sister, Speciality Admissions Unit, Nottingham City Hospital, University of Nottingham NHS Trust). Email:

    Original publishing information

    • Publisher: St Christopher's Hospice
    • Publish date: 01/01/2013
    • Volume: 3
    • Issue: 2

    Permissions: © 2015, Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  • Downloads

Full article access

To download and read the full article you need to log in

Not yet registered? Registration is free and easy.

Register online now

St Christopher's education events

Clinical Skills

Relevant to palliative and end of life care

Find out more